What Will Happen To Our Sun In The Future

5 min read

What Will Happen To Our Sun In The Future – The sun will not live forever. In the very distant future it will become a red giant and then turn into a white dwarf. Life on Earth will disappear. There is nothing we can do but move elsewhere.

Death Star: The active part of the sun emits a lot of X-rays. In the distant future, the sun’s behavior will become more extreme, causing the end of all life on Earth. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO

What Will Happen To Our Sun In The Future

What Will Happen To Our Sun In The Future

A bright future: When the sun turns into a bloated red giant star, the oceans will evaporate and Earth will turn into a lava planet. Credit: Fotolia

Will The Earth Be Wiped Out By The Sun

New home: In a billion years, humans on Earth could decide to “terraform” Mars and settle there in an attempt to escape the scorching heat of the sun.

When the sun runs out of its nuclear fuel, in about 5 billion years it will turn into a bloated red giant, enveloping Mercury and Venus and burning up the Earth. After the outer layer is removed in the form of a colorful planetary nebula, the Sun is compressed into a small white dwarf star. But faster, the temperature of the sun will increase gradually. In less than a billion years, Earth’s oceans will begin to boil. There’s no way humans will still be here then, so it’s better to worry about other short-term problems that threaten the habitability of our planet.

Inevitable evolution: Over the next billion years, the sun’s temperature will gradually increase. In about 5 billion years it will become a red giant, ending all life in the inner solar system. Credit: d+m

Seeking Refuge: When Earth becomes uninhabitable, our descendants can build multi-generational spaceships to migrate to other planetary systems. Credit: Rick Guidice/NASA Ames Research Center

Hello Solar Cycle 25

Life on Earth would not be possible without the light and warmth of the sun. So if the sun dies, that’s bad news. Fortunately for us, this won’t happen for several billion years. The Sun, like all stars, is a fusion-powered plasma fireball. Magnetic field lines originate on the surface which can produce dark spots called sunspots. Increase the activity of these magnetic eddies and you get more solar storms that hurl deadly charged particles and radiation through our solar system. If enough of these punishing waves hit a rocky planet, it can eventually fall into a bleak state where nothing can live anymore.

So how are we still alive? A study published Thursday in the journal Science shows that our Sun is relatively tame compared to its stellar siblings, and that hundreds of other Sun-like stars in our Milky Way have an average of five times more magnetic activity than our stellar parent. In other words, the sun is relatively common, which could be good for life on Earth.

Astronomers have monitored the appearance of sunspots since Galileo’s time, providing clues to solar activity going back four centuries. Some previous studies also suggested that the Sun is quieter than other similar stars. But competing evidence has also shown that the Sun’s activity level is normal for a star of this size.

What Will Happen To Our Sun In The Future

“This raises the question: ‘Is the Sun really a Sun-like star?'” said Timo Reinhold, an astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen, Germany, and co-author of the paper.

In The Far Future Our Sun Will Turn Into A Solid Crystalline White Dwarf. Here’s How It’ll Happen

Dr. Reinhold and his colleagues examined data collected by NASA’s retired Kepler Space Telescope, which has been monitoring about 150,000 stars in the Milky Way for four years in search of exoplanets, and was able to observe variations in brightness due to activity such as appearing and disappearing. of star spots.

The researchers chose stars whose mass, temperature, age, chemical composition and rotation period were comparable to our Sun. In the end, they found 369 stars for comparison, the largest number.

A star like the Sun undergoes a regular cycle in which spots cross its surface with varying frequencies. During periods of maximum magnetic activity, when spots appear across its surface, the star becomes fainter. Our solar cycle lasts about 11 Earth years.

For the sun this gradation can be neglected. Data from the past 140 years show that the brightness changes by less than one-tenth of a percent during the cycle. But for the stars studied by Kepler, the variability can be up to twelve times greater.

How Bright Is The Sun?

Sync your calendar with the solar system. Don’t miss solar eclipses, meteor showers, rocket launches or other astronomical and space events.

The first is that the Sun is in an unusual period and will one day wake up and become more like its peers. Evidence for this idea comes from significant variations in the level of solar activity throughout history. Between 1645 and 1715, a time known as the Maunder Minimum, astronomers observed little or no sunspots. More than a century later, in 1859, the sun produced one of the largest electromagnetic storms ever recorded, the Carrington Event, which destroyed telegraph lines and caused auroras as far south as the Caribbean.

But Natalie Krivova, co-author and also an astrophysicist at Max Planck, said the data from the ice cores, which contain chemical indicators of solar activity over the past 9,000 years, do not suggest the Sun is noisier in a geological context. already gone. On the other hand, nine millennia is a mistake compared to the sun’s lifespan of four billion years.

What Will Happen To Our Sun In The Future

The second idea, said Dr. Krivova, is a magnetic dynamo in the sun, which drives an enormous magnetic field, has reached the end of its powerful phase and is now entering a period of reduced activity. Stars older than the Sun show a significant decrease in their magnetic activity, and the Sun is nearing the age at which this change should occur.

The Sun Is A Bit Boring, Which May Make It Special

Some leading scientists believe the sun’s magnetic dynamo “could reach its final state or die,” said Ricky Egeland, a solar physicist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado.

The 369 Sun-like stars observed by Kepler may be at an earlier stage of evolution than the Sun, these scientists say. Or maybe something special about the sun caused the early transition. Team Dr. Reinhold does not favor one explanation over another.

In both cases, calm sunlight benefits our species. When the sun shines, energetic emissions are dangerous to astronauts and satellites in orbit, and particularly powerful explosions can affect power grids on the ground. Radiation from such events is not very conducive to the existence of living organisms.

Models show that when the sun was younger, perhaps half a billion or a billion years old, its magnetic activity was greater than it is now, Dr. Egeland.

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“I always wonder what effect this variability has on the development of life,” he said. “It may not be a coincidence that we live around a very inactive star.”

A print version of this article appeared in Section D, Page 3 of the New York edition under the headline: The sun is special because it’s boring. Order reprint | Today’s newspaper | Subscribe

This image of the Sun, taken on October 24, 2014, shows a large solar flare erupting in a large active region.

This image of the Sun, taken on October 24, 2014, shows a large solar flare erupting in a large active region.

What Will Happen To Our Sun In The Future

Compared to the billions of other stars in the universe, the sun is nothing special. But for Earth and the other planets orbiting it, the sun is a powerful center of attention. It maintains the unity of the solar system; supplying the earth with light, heat and life-giving energy; and generate space weather.

Death Of A Star

The Sun is located about 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way, in a branch of our own galaxy known as the Orion arm. Every 230 million years, the sun – and the solar system it dominates – rotates around the center of the Milky Way. Although we cannot feel it, the sun follows its path at an average speed of 700,000 kilometers per hour.

The Sun was formed more than 4.5 billion years ago, when a cloud of dust and gas called a nebula collapsed under its own gravity. As that happens, the cloud turns and flattens into a disk, with our sun forming in the center. The edge of the disk then gathered in our solar system, including Earth and other planets. Scientists have also managed to see how this disk produces planets around our Sun’s young, distant cousin.

Our house star is a yellow dwarf, a medium-sized variety that is fairly common in our Milky Way. However, the ‘yellow’ label is misleading, as our sun burns bright white. On Earth, the sun can take on warmer colors, especially at sunrise or sunset, because our planet’s atmosphere scatters blue and green light the most.

From our perspective, ‘dwarf’ might not be the best word for our sun. With a diameter of about 1.4 million kilometers, the Sun is 109 times wider than Earth and makes up more than 99.8% of the total mass of the solar system. If it is

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