How Does Climate Change Affect The Ocean Ecosystem – How is climate change affecting coral reefs? Different impacts of climate change are changing the ocean. These changes significantly affect coral reef ecosystems.
Climate change is the world’s greatest threat to coral reef ecosystems. Scientific evidence now clearly shows that the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans are warming, and that these changes are primarily caused by greenhouse gases from human activities.
- 1 How Does Climate Change Affect The Ocean Ecosystem
- 2 Understanding The Impact Of Ocean Layers On Climate Change
- 2.1 The Ocean Has Issues: 7 Biggest Problems Facing Our Seas, And How To Fix Them
- 2.2 How Can An Ecosystem Approach Be Used To Address Climate Change?
- 2.3 Marine Food Chains At Risk Of Collapse, Extensive Study Of World’s Oceans Finds
How Does Climate Change Affect The Ocean Ecosystem
Mass bleaching of corals and outbreaks of infectious diseases become more frequent as the temperature rises. In addition, carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere into the ocean has already begun to alter seawater chemistry by lowering ocean pH, reducing the rate of coral formation and calcification in coral-associated organisms. This process is called ocean acidification.
Understanding The Impact Of Ocean Layers On Climate Change
Climate change causes sea level rise; Changes in the frequency and intensity of tropical storms and changes in ocean circulation patterns will affect climate change. When combined, these dramatically alter ecosystem function, as well as the goods and services of coral reef ecosystems around the world.
Increasing amounts of greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change and ocean acidification. Climate change = ocean change. The world’s oceans contain carbon dioxide (CO
Factors that increase greenhouse gases in the atmosphere include the burning of fossil fuels to produce heat and power; production of certain industrial products; Animal Husbandry This includes crop fertilization and deforestation. Climate change causes:
Coral Reef Pollution Threats On land, serious stressors to coral reef ecosystems affect land-based resources, emerging toxins; It is formed from sediments and nutrients.
Climate Change And The Ocean: Oxygen Poor Zones Shrank Under Past Warm Periods, Scientists Discover
Threats to Coral Reef Fishing Overfishing Many coasts and islands depend on coral reef fishing, but overfishing destroys key reef species and destroys coral habitats. As climate change intensifies, its effects are felt worldwide. The global ocean plays a key role and has so far absorbed most of the carbon dioxide and excess heat produced by human activities. but also vulnerable. Some major changes are already underway, and climate change in our oceans appears to be worsening.
About 90% of the excess heat trapped in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases is eventually absorbed by the world’s oceans. Because the oceans are so large, the change in sea temperature may seem small – the surface layer of sea water has warmed by 0.5°C over the past century. That’s still enough to cause significant disruption, and warming is accelerating.
When things heat up, they expand, become denser, and take up more space. Oceans are different. Indeed, between 1993 and 2010, thermal expansion caused an average sea level rise of 1.1 mm per year. That’s the bulk of the overall growth we’ve seen.
Total sea-level rise between 1993–2010 averaged 3.2 mm per year, from a variety of sources, including water stored on land such as snow. (Image: Manuel Bortolet / China Dialogue Ocean)
The Ocean Has Issues: 7 Biggest Problems Facing Our Seas, And How To Fix Them
Warm water affects the atmosphere above it. Rising sea surface temperatures are associated with stronger hurricanes and tropical cyclones. The number of strongest Category 4 or 5 storms hitting islands and coastal areas could increase. Warmer water also dissolves less carbon dioxide, leaving more in the atmosphere to accelerate global warming.
Like Earth, rising temperatures in the oceans cause destructive heat waves. They occur when abnormal weather conditions or water currents cause the average water temperature to rise for at least five consecutive days. But it can take months or even years. Between 2013 and 2015, a heat wave known as the ‘Blob’ swept across the North Pacific, killing an estimated one million seabirds along the US West Coast.
When carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater, it reacts to form carbonic acid: a very weak acid, but enough to change the pH of seawater, which is naturally alkaline. Since the Industrial Revolution, dissolved carbon dioxide has increased the average pH of the ocean’s surface by 0.1 pH units, an estimated 8.2 to 8.1 (7 is neutral).
Although the change is not significant because pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, it actually represents an almost 30% increase in acidity. This has significant implications for seawater chemistry and the ecosystems that depend on it.
How Can An Ecosystem Approach Be Used To Address Climate Change?
Increasing acidity is particularly bad news for molluscs and other marine animals that use the mineral calcium carbonate to build their shells and skeletons. Because more acidic water can destroy this mineral, oysters, shallow-sea shallow corals; Black Sea corals and calcareous plankton are less accessible to minerals called oysters. Worse, the chemical change helps break down the existing carbonate structures.
Coral is particularly vulnerable. Experiments on a small section of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia have shown that artificially reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in seawater returns pH to pre-industrial levels and increases coral reef health by 7%. Then, as scientists raise carbon dioxide levels and ocean pH drops to levels expected by the end of this century, minerals will drop by a third.
Many scientists believe that as climate change continues, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will break up and completely melt, eventually releasing enough water into the oceans to raise global sea levels by several meters. Although it takes hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, melting is accelerating. The United Nations Climate Change Organization predicts that sea levels will rise by an average of 61 centimeters to 1.1 meters by the end of the century.
By 2050, sea-level rise could overwhelm land currently home to at least 300 million people, most of them in Asia.
Places Most Affected By Climate Change
Villagers in the Sundarbans work to repair a damaged dam after seawater flooded nearby fields. This low-lying delta straddles the India-Bangladesh border. Home to about 4.5 million people; It is particularly sensitive to sea level rise. (Photo © Peter Catton / Greenpeace)
This will also affect the coastal ecosystem. The environment of beaches and dunes is more demanding and subject to frequent flooding and erosion; Seawater will inundate important freshwater habitats, including mudflats and wetlands, which are needed for breeding bird species.
As the sea freezes each polar winter, the sea ice melts and thins each summer. This melting of the ice does not significantly contribute to sea level, but it causes enormous problems for the creatures that depend on it for their habitat. Notably, polar bears need sea ice to hunt seals, and studies show that many of the 25,000 left in the Arctic are still struggling. The subspecies of the animal around the southern Beaufort Sea in Alaska and northeastern Canada declined by 40 percent between 2001 and 2010.
Ocean currents are sensitive to the effects of climate change. Currently, these currents act like giant global conveyor belts: pushing air from the warm equator to the cold poles, dragging surface water along. As the cold polar air cools, this water becomes denser and sinks into the deep ocean. (increases as it warms and becomes denser) which pushes it back towards the equator; The denser water from above is another dose of water from above. It transports and mixes nutrients and circulates through the cycle.
Marine Food Chains At Risk Of Collapse, Extensive Study Of World’s Oceans Finds
Melting ice disrupts this system. The large amount of fresh water at the poles reduces the density of seawater and slows its fall. same without downward force; The overall global cycle may weaken. In 2018, scientists estimated that the main current in the Atlantic Ocean slowed by about 15%. Some studies suggest it could be worse than 30% by 2100.
Based on what happened in the past, scientists say that slowing ocean currents could cause significant changes in Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Winters in Europe can be colder (an idea taken to extremes in The Day After Tomorrow). At the same time, the waters of the South Atlantic may warm and, as sea surface temperatures affect wind and precipitation, this may disrupt the monsoon cycle, which is important for crops in Asia and South America.
Ocean creatures rely on dissolved oxygen in seawater just as they breathe air. However, climate change is slowly depleting oxygen from the sea: between 1960 and 2010, it is estimated that 1-2% was lost, and this could increase to 4% by 2100.
There are many reasons. Warm water dilutes the gas and disrupts ocean currents, limiting the amount of oxygen that can be transported from the surface to the depths.
How Carbon Emissions Acidify Our Ocean
A growing problem arises when fertilizers and other nutrients added to agricultural land run off into rivers and possibly coastal waters. As a result of an unexpected diet, algae can grow rapidly and form flowers with large flowers and the name green (or red). For example, fish can be problematic by excreting toxic chemicals. As the algae die and sink, the microbes that make up the deep biome absorb the oxygen.
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